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生命价值几何?复工还是防疫?美国政府背后的决议逻辑是什么?

时间:2021-10-14    来源:lol赛事押注软件    人气:

本文摘要:停止6月20日18时,美国新冠病毒肺炎累计确诊2297360例,累计治愈956077例,累计死亡121407例,现有确诊1219876例。从最初的零星熏染到之后的疫情大发作,美国从对疫情的漠不关心过渡到开始实施社交距离及封锁等限制性措施,在疫情控制初见成效后又急不行耐地开始重启经济。实施社交距离及封锁等限制性措施无疑会重创经济,但不接纳这些措施,则大量的美国人会熏染新冠,甚至因此丧命。 选择经济还是选择民众康健?美国政府政策决议背后的逻辑究竟是什么?读过此文,你会了然于心。

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停止6月20日18时,美国新冠病毒肺炎累计确诊2297360例,累计治愈956077例,累计死亡121407例,现有确诊1219876例。从最初的零星熏染到之后的疫情大发作,美国从对疫情的漠不关心过渡到开始实施社交距离及封锁等限制性措施,在疫情控制初见成效后又急不行耐地开始重启经济。实施社交距离及封锁等限制性措施无疑会重创经济,但不接纳这些措施,则大量的美国人会熏染新冠,甚至因此丧命。

选择经济还是选择民众康健?美国政府政策决议背后的逻辑究竟是什么?读过此文,你会了然于心。英文后有翻译哦,可以只看中文长见识。

What Is a Life Worth?COVID-19 and the Economic Value of Protecting HealthBy W. Kip ViscusiJune 17, 2020The COVID-19 pandemic has raised fundamental questions about how to balance the protection of public health and the protection of the economy. How should authorities weigh the risk of illness and death against the risk of economic damage caused by social distancing and other restrictions that slow the spread of disease?1. raise fundamental questions 提出基础性的问题2. balance A and B 平衡A与B3. authorities n.官方,政府4. weigh v.权衡weight“体重”,weigh做动词为“给...称重”,引申为“权衡”,weigh A against B即“权衡A与B”。economic damage表现“经济损失”,caused by social distancing and other restrictions为已往分词短语,做定语,修饰economic damage,相当于定语从句which/that are caused by social distancing and other restrictions;that引导定语从句,指代social distancing and other restrictions,做定语从句的主语。

5. restriction n.限制如何平衡掩护民众康健与生长社会经济的矛盾?这是新冠疫情凸显的一个基础性的问题。为应对疫情,实施社交距离及其他限制性措施会阻碍经济生长,如对疫情听之任之,则会危害民众康健甚与生命宁静。

经济宁静还是生命宁静,政府应如何决议?This question is never easy to answer. Fortunately, there is a well-established method of converting the value of reducing health risks into monetary terms, so that policymakers can more easily perform this delicate balancing act. The key is what economists call “the value of a statistical life,” an estimate of the amount that people are willing to pay to prevent an expected death.6. well-established 已经确立的,牢固下来的establish表现“建设,确立”,well-established则为“已经确立的,已经建设的”。联合语境,此处表现有一套成熟的盘算方式;The University has a well-established tradition of welcoming postgraduate students from overseas.这所大学有着接待外洋研究生就读的悠久传统。7. convert...into 将...转变为8. monetary terms 钱币形式term表现“术语”,monetary terms即钱币形式,term还可表现“期限,学期,任期,条款”9. perform v.推行,做10. delicate adj.微妙的delicate 还可以表现“精致的,纤细的”,好比delicate vases(精致的花瓶),delicate hands(纤细的双手);11. balancing act 平衡各方权益的行动act 还可表现“法案”,an act of Congress,一项议会法案12. statistical adj.统计数据的statistics, 数字13. estimate n.预计14. amount n.数量,数额 amount修饰不行数名词,如 a large amount of information/money amount可做动词,表现“到达”, 到达某一数值为amount to,相当于add up to15. an expected death 可能的死亡,预期的死亡这是一个难题。幸亏现在已经有了一套成熟的盘算方式,可以盘算出应对疫情所造成的经济损失详细数额,资助政府选择。

其焦点也即经济学家所说的“生命统计值”:人们为制止某种可能的死亡愿意支付的经济成本。The most common way that economists estimate the VSL is by looking at the risks that people face at work. In the construction industry, for example, some workers who perform dangerous tasks, such as machine operators, face an average annual risk of being killed on the job of one in 2,500.16. estimate v.预计17. look at 思量18. construction industry 修建行业19. machine operator 机械操作员 operate可表现“运转,操作,谋划,做手术”Ceiling and wall lights can operate independently.吊灯和壁灯可单独开关。Consumption of alcohol impairs your ability to drive a car or operate machinery.饮酒会削弱你驾驶汽车或操控机械的能力。

But your partners will have no voice in how you operate your company.可是你的合资人对你如何谋划公司不会有讲话权。Nuclear plants are expensive to build, though cheap to operate.核电站造价高昂,虽然运转用度低廉。I thought it was unethical for doctors to operate upon their wives.我认为医生为自己妻子做手术不合乎职业道德。盘算生命统计值时,经济学家最常用的方式是权衡人们事情所面临的风险系数。

举个例子,修建工地上,部门工人从事的是危险的工种,好比机械操作员,每年平均每2500名机械操作员中,有1名会因工死亡。Analyzing large employment data sets reveals that those workers are paid an extra $4,000 or so per year in wages compared to people with similar educational backgrounds, skills, experience, and training who have safer jobs. Economists look at these two figures and see a third one: if all 2,500 of those workers were paid $4,000 extra dollars, and one of them died, it is possible to multiply those two numbers to calculate that the lost life was “worth” $10 million dollars. That number is the VSL. It reflects how much extra wages workers must be paid for each expected death on the job.20. employment data sets 就业数据21. reveal v.揭破,展现22. figure n.数字figure做名词还可表现“体型,人物”,好比have a round figure(身材圆润);a public figure(民众人物);做动词时常用词组figure out(弄明确,搞清楚)23. multiply v. 乘以multiply还可表现“(使)增加”Friendships multiply joys and divide griefs.友谊增进欢喜,分管忧愁.24. calculate v.盘算25. reflect v. 反映,讲明reflect还可表现“反射,反思”,reflect light(反射光),reflect on the past(反思已往),reflect表现反思时后面注意加on大量就业数据分析显示,与接受过同等教育及培训,有相似职业技术及履历,但从事更宁静工种的人相比,这些机械操作员年收入要横跨4000美元。2500名机械操作员,每人每年多赚4000美元,将两者相乘为1000万美元,就获得了一人因工死亡的生命统计值。生命统计值反映的是因某种可能的因工死亡,应分外付给工人的款项数额。

My current estimate of the VSL in the United States is, in fact, $10 million. My estimate is in line with the figures that most U.S. government agencies now use. What that means in practice is that when considering how to calculate the value of a prospective policy to reduce risks, the government assigns a value of $10 million to each death it expects the policy would prevent.26. be in line with 与...一致be in line with=be in agreement with27. government agency 政府机构28. in practice 实际上,事实上29. prospective adj.可能的prospective此处相当于expected或potential,表现可能的,预计的30. assign v.分配assign表现“部署,分配”All the students are assigned to suitable jobs.所有的学生都分到了合适的事情。For example, you might assign each order a unique order number.例如,可能会为每个订单分配一个唯一的订单号。我预计,现在美国的生命统计值即为1000万美元。这一估值与大部门美国政府机构现在所使用的生命统计值是一致的。

也就是说,政府认为,应对疫情的政策每制止一人死亡所带来的价值是1000万美元,由此可以得出某一疫情应对政策的价值。In March, the federal government estimated that social distancing and other restrictions would save at least one million American lives. At a value of $10 million per life, the total benefits of those policies would amount to $10 trillion, or about half of U.S. GDP, making it clear that social distancing and lockdowns were justified not only by the lives they saved but by the massive economic damage they prevented. 31. benefit n.收益 benefit还可做动词,为“使...受益,受益于...”32. amount to=add up to 共计,总计33. justify v.证明...恰当或合理How can they justify paying such huge salaries? 他们怎能证明付这么大笔薪金是正当的呢?How can you justify spending so much money? 花掉这么多钱做,你有说得已往的理由吗?34. massive adj. 庞大的3月份,联邦政府预计实施社交距离及其他限制性措施能够挽救至少100万美国人的生命,如果每个生命的生命统计值是1000美元,那么为应对疫情所接纳的这些措施能够带来的经济效益就是10万亿美元,大致相当于美国国民生产总值的一半。如此算来,实施社交距离及封锁措施不仅能够挽救生命还能够制止极大的经济损失。


本文关键词:lol比赛哪里可以押注,生命,价值,几何,复工,还是,防疫,美国,政府,背

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